: most fruits naturally lack either sufficient fermentable sugars, relatively low acidity, yeast nutrients needed to promote or maintain fermentation, or a combination of these three characteristics. This is probably one of the main reasons why wine derived from grapes has historically been more prevalent by far than other types, and why specific types of fruit wine have generally been confined to regions in which the fruits were native or introduced for other reasons.
Starch based Wine: beverages called “wine”, such as barley wine and rice wine (e.g. sake), are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer more than traditional wine, while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. In these latter cases, the term “wine” refers to the similarity in alcohol content rather than to the production process.
Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera, such as Pinot noir, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay and Merlot. When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as minimums of 75% to 85%), the result is a “varietal” as opposed to a “blended” wine. Blended wines are not considered inferior to varietal wines, rather they are a different style of winemaking; some of the world’s most highly regarded wines, from regions like Bordeaux and the Rhone Valley, are blended from different grape varieties.
Wine is a popular and important beverage
that accompanies and enhances a wide range of cuisines, from the simple and traditional stews
to the most sophisticated and complex haute cuisines
. Wine is often served with dinner. Sweet dessert wines
may be served with the dessert
course. In fine restaurants in Western countries, wine typically accompanies dinner. At a restaurant, patrons are helped to make good food-wine pairings by the restaurant’s sommelier
or wine waiter. Individuals dining at home may use wine guides to help make food-wine pairings. Wine is also drunk without the accompaniment of a meal in wine bars
or with a selection of cheeses (at a wine and cheese party). Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a beverage, but as a flavor agent, primarily in stocks
, since its acidity lends balance to rich savory
dishes. Wine sauce
is an example of a culinary sauce that uses wine as a primary ingredient.
Wine cellars, or wine rooms, if they are above-ground, are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wine. Fine restaurants and some private homes have wine cellars. In an active wine cellar, temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate-control system. Passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled, and so must be carefully located. Because wine is a natural, perishable food product, all types—including red, white, sparkling, and fortified—can spoil when exposed to heat, light, vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity. When properly stored, wines can maintain their quality and in some cases improve in aroma, flavor, and complexity as they age.